A generals insights into leadership and management reorganizing consolidating downsizing
As a result, organizations may shift focus, modify goals, restructure roles and responsibilities, and develop new forms.
Adaptive efforts such as these may be said to fall under the general rubric of .
Organizational change is pervasive today, as organizations struggle to adapt or face decline in the volatile environments of a global economic and political world.
The many potent forces in these environments—competition, technological innovations, professionalism, and demographics, to name a few—shape the process of organizational adaptation.
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In addition, reflecting on advances in information technologies during the last 50 years makes clear that (1) such technologies are still in their early stages of effectiveness or adoption and (2) other, better, technologies are in the making.Institutional theory focuses on the need for organizations to maintain legitimacy with societal norms and values, often embodied in governments, professions, and trade associations (Meyer and Rowan, 1977; Powell and Di Maggio, 1991; Scott, 1987, 1995; Zucker, 1977). They tend, however, to deemphasize the influences of management action and leadership in organizational change (but see Hannan and Freeman, 1984; Suchman, 1995).In this chapter, in contrast, we emphasize the role of managers as interpreters and even manipulators of their organization's environment.From 1965 to 1980, the number of scientific articles published per day grew from 3,000 to 8,000, a 160 percent increase (Huppes, 19).
This increase is only a snapshot measure of the long-term trend in the generation of scientific knowledge.Although exponential growth cannot continue forever, this general pattern of rapid growth is likely to continue into the intermediate future.